Peter Schickele parodies both the story of Oedipus Rex and the music of Stravinsky's opera-oratorio of the same name in Oedipus Tex, a Western-themed oratorio purportedly written by P.D.Q. The acts Oedipus discovers he has committed are just as horrifying to the rough and ready period before the Trojan War as they would be to fifth-century Athens. Introduction and trans. The misfortunes of Thebes are believed to be the result of a curse laid upon Laius for the time he had violated the sacred laws of hospitality (Greek: xenia). In the very first ode the Chorus depicts the horror of the plague and expresses an apprehension about the message from the oracle of Delphi. Oedipus' assumption is incorrect, the Oracle does, in a way, answer his question. The two verbs in boldface indicate what is called a "future more vivid" condition: if a child is born to Laius, his fate to be killed by that child will overtake him.[23]. While it is a mythological truism that oracles exist to be fulfilled, oracles do not cause the events that lead up to the outcome. The Sphinx, perched on a hill, was devouring Thebans and travellers one by one if they could not solve her riddle. [1] Originally, to the ancient Greeks, the title was simply Oedipus (Οἰδίπους), as it is referred to by Aristotle in the Poetics. Sophocles uses dramatic irony to present the downfall of Oedipus. Desperate to avoid this terrible fate, Oedipus, who still believes that Polybus and Merope are his true parents, leaves Corinth for the city of Thebes. Prior to the start of Oedipus Rex, Oedipus has become the king of Thebes while unwittingly fulfilling a prophecy that he would kill his father, Laius (the previous king), and marry his mother, Jocasta (whom Oedipus took as his queen after solving the riddle of the Sphinx). As he grows to manhood, Oedipus hears a rumour that he is not truly the son of Polybus and his wife, Merope. Lastly, Chorus is seen mourning the tragic demise of Oedipus and says that generation of mor[t]al man adds up to nothing. The play 'Oedipus Rex' deals with Theban King Oedipus' rise to, and subsequent fall from, personal happiness and professional success. (In other versions, the servant gives the infant to the shepherd.). or who it is who shares your household. Given the modern conception of fate and fatalism, readers of the play have a tendency to view Oedipus as a mere puppet controlled by greater forces; a man crushed by the gods and fate for no good reason. Since he did not write connected trilogies as Aeschylus did, Oedipus Rex focuses on the titular character while hinting at the larger myth obliquely, which was already known to the audience in Athens at the time. important role in the play In Oedipus Rex , the chorus acts as a character. He analyzes why this play, Oedipus Rex, written in Ancient Greece, is so effective even to a modern audience:[32]:279–280, "His destiny moves us only because it might have been ours — because the oracle laid the same curse upon us before our birth as upon him. The second English-language film version, Oedipus the King (1968), was directed by Philip Saville and filmed in Greece. At the end of Oedipus the King, the Chorus conflates the people of “Thebes” with the audience in the theater. He had considered setting the language of the work in Ancient Greek, but decided ultimately on Latin because, in his words, "a medium not dead but turned to stone.". Oedipus Rex is regarded by many scholars as the masterpiece of ancient Greek tragedy[citation needed]. The Chorus played an integral role in conveying the plot and meaning of Ancient Greek Theatre to the audience by highlighting and portraying the social perception and consequences of the characters’ actions and fates. It emerges that this messenger was formerly a shepherd on Mount Cithaeron, and that he was given a baby, which the childless Polybus then adopted. Oedipus has hope, however, because the story is that Laius was murdered by several robbers. Laius seduces or abducts Chrysippus, and rapes him. The play is about a man who is doomed to the fate that was predicted by the Oracle at Delphi before his birth. The chorus laments how even a great man can be felled by fate, and following this, a servant exits the palace to speak of what has happened inside. This interpretation is supported by Jocasta's repetition of the oracle at lines 854–55: "Loxias declared that the king should be killed by/ his own son." Jocasta relates the prophecy that was told to Laius before the birth of Oedipus (lines 711–4): [The oracle] told him The libretto, based on Sophocles's tragedy, was written by Jean Cocteau in French and then translated by Abbé Jean Daniélou into Latin. The basic role of the chorus in Oedipus Rex is to sing comments about the ongoing situations in the drama. Dodds draws a comparison with Jesus' prophecy at the Last Supper that Peter would deny him three times. Glassberg (2017) explains that “Oedipus has clearly missed the mark. Write a note on the function of the chorus in Oedipus Rex. Our dreams convince us that this is so. "Apollo and his Purpose in Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus. According to Aristotle the Chorus should be like one of the characters. In the development of the action as a whole it is the Chorus that plays as important a part as that of Oedipus. Sophocles uses the chorus in “Oedipus” to clearly display his message to the audience. For other uses, see, Although Sophocles won second prize with the group of plays that included. Mulroy, David. 1348 Words 6 Pages. Don Taylor's 1986 translation/adaptation of Oedipus Rex using the English title Oedipus the King formed part of the BBC's Theban Plays trilogy. "[19], The science revolution attributed to Thales began gaining political force, and this play offered a warning to the new thinkers. They respond that he is the "same shepherd" who was witness to the murder of Laius, and whom Oedipus had already sent for. In “Oedipus Rex,” the chorus represents the voice of the average citizens and contributes insight that cannot be communicated by the other characters in the play. In Oedipus the King we see the Chorus constantly advising Oedipus to keep his cool. The play 'Oedipus at Colonus' is the opposite of 'Oedipus Rex'. to be murderer of the father that begot me. contains the earliest account of the Oedipus myth when Odysseus encounters Jocasta (named Epicaste) in the underworld. It is the fate of all of us, perhaps, to direct our first sexual impulse towards our mother and our first hatred and our first murderous wish against our father. Oedipus Rex is a tragic play by Sophocles. The two argue vehemently, as Oedipus mocks Tiresias' lack of sight, and Tiresias retorts that Oedipus himself is blind. Oedipus, to the surprise of the messenger, is made ecstatic by this news, for it proves one half of the prophecy false, for now he can never kill his father. "[18] H. D. F. Kitto said about Oedipus Rex that "it is true to say that the perfection of its form implies a world order," although Kitto notes that whether or not that world order "is beneficent, Sophocles does not say. It is deliberately ironic that the "seer" can "see" better than Oedipus, despite being blind. At the beginning of the story, Oedipus is portrayed as "self-confident, intelligent and strong willed. Show More. Ziaul Haque, Md. Bach. THE CHORUS IN OEDIPUS TYRANNUS' By P. H. VELLACOTT I RECENTLY saw a film of Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus containing some fine performances and some sensitive direction. For example, similarities to Oedipus can be seen in the myth of Perseus' birth. The role of the chorus in Oedipus Rex is to speak for the society in general. He can expand the past, comment on present and forbade the future. 1997. The scene with the drunken guest constitutes the end of Oedipus' childhood. None of these choices are predetermined. The oracle inspires a series of specific choices, freely made by Oedipus, which lead him to kill his father and marry his mother. The events surrounding the Trojan War were chronicled in the Epic Cycle, of which much remains, and those about Thebes in the Theban Cycle, which have been lost. The Chorus is given the last word in each of the three Theban plays, and perhaps the best way of understanding the different ways in which the Chorus can work is to look at each of these three speeches briefly. Homer's Odyssey (XI.271ff.) So chorus is a large organized group of people assembled together that performs with an orchestra or opera company. The precise riddle asked by the Sphinx varied in early traditions, and is not explicitly stated in Oedipus Rex, as the event precedes the play. "[15] Cedric Whitman noted that "the Oedipus Rex passes almost universally for the greatest extant Greek play..."[16] Whitman himself regarded the play as "the fullest expression of this conception of tragedy," that is the conception of tragedy as a "revelation of the evil lot of man," where a man may have "all the equipment for glory and honor" but still have "the greatest effort to do good" end in "the evil of an unbearable self for which one is not responsible. Prompted by Jocasta's recollection, Oedipus reveals the prophecy which caused him to leave Corinth (lines 791–3): that I was fated to lie with my mother, In 2020, Andrew Miller (actor) starred in a production of Oedipus Rex for PBS.[36]. The prophet plays important role of forming the story line and tragic image of Oedipus, but the root causing the … In particular, it is said that the gods made the matter of his paternity known, whilst in Oedipus the King, Oedipus very much discovers the truth himself.[12]. The chorus continuosly ", Lawrence, S. 2008. The Chorus holds the balance between Oedipus and his antagonists, marks the progress of their struggles, and re-states the main theme and its new variation after each dialogue. "The Concept of Blindness in Sophocles'. In, Coughanowr, Effie. The dilemma that Oedipus faces here is similar to that of the tyrannical Creon: each man has, as king, made a decision that his subjects question or disobey; and each king misconstrues both his own role as a sovereign and the role of the rebel. In “Oedipus Rex,” the chorus represents the voice of the average citizens and contributes insight that cannot be communicated by the other characters in the play. One scene I particularly remember because it made clear a point which has usually been either shirked or muddled through both in production and in scholarly comment. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. Parrott Development of Western Civ October 27, 2015 Essay 1 As one examines the role and function of the chorus within Sophocles’ Oedipus the King, it is inevitable to find that the odes directly correlate to the story with great significance. The Importance of the Chorus in Oedipus Rex. The chorus comments on the actions of the play's characters and provides a broad look at the story. he may drag out his wretched unblessed days. In Greek, Jocasta uses the verb chrênai: "to be fated, necessary." The trilogy containing Oedipus Rex took second prize in the City Dionysia at its original performance. The Oracle seems to ignore this question, telling him instead that he is destined to "mate with [his] own mother, and shed/With [his] own hands the blood of [his] own sire." He expresses the feelings of audience . To emphasise themes To help the story progress To intensify the audience's reaction The theme of religion is especially emphasised by the chorus in Oedipus, this is because of Sophocles agenda - not to test the fate that the gods have set out for you. One interpretation considers that the presentation of Laius's oracle in this play differs from that found in Aeschylus's Oedipus trilogy produced in 467 BC. The role of chorus as shown in Sophocles' Oedipus King actually extends our understanding of the play in that the chorus commentate on the action, analyse the meaning behind the actions. at the hands of his own son, a son to be born Like the chorus in many Greek tragedies, the chorus in Oedipus Rex represents the voice of the greater society. In the tragedies of the ancient Greek, the Chorus is an essential characters. Oedipus went to Delphi and asked the oracle about his parentage. Of Sophocles' three Theban plays that have survived, and that deal with the story of Oedipus, Oedipus Rex was the second to be written. Strictly speaking, this is inaccurate: Oedipus himself sets these events in motion when he decides to investigate his parentage against the advice of Polybus and Merope. Explain why Oedipus and Antigone can be considered as victims of the gods. believe that this tale of Laius' transgressions against Chrysippus were added later to the myth in order to explain the family's curse. Many years ago, at a banquet in Corinth, a man drunkenly accused Oedipus of not being his father's son. that horribly, as he is horrible, In the fifth or last choric tribute in Oedipus Rex, the Chorus reflects the despondency of Oedipus and says that all the eras of moral man indicate nothing. The narration, however, is performed in the language of the audience. The chorus serves as a link between characters and the audience. There are many important uses of chorus . Another characteristic of oracles in myth is that they are almost always misunderstood by those who hear them; hence Oedipus misunderstanding the significance of the Delphic Oracle. which men would not endure, and I was doomed It was released in 1990 on the album Oedipus Tex and Other Choral Calamities. The film went a step further than the play by actually showing, in flashback, the murder of Laius (portrayed by Friedrich Ledebur). John Shrapnel, who starred as Creon in the 1986 BBC television version, played the First Elder. The chorus serves as a link between characters and the audience. [35] The film even alters the iconic twist, causing many American critics to overlook the connection. He asks Jocasta what Laius looked like, and Oedipus suddenly becomes worried that Tiresias's accusations were true. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. ", Sommerstein, A. H. 2011. It also shows Oedipus and Jocasta in bed together, making love. The two cities of Troy and Thebes were the major focus of Greek epic poetry. Most of the time in ancient tragedies choruses do a lot of lamenting of terrible events, but do little to stop them. He ignores the word of Tiresias and continues on his journey to find the supposed killer. Oedipus learns of his fate and immediately tries to prevent it, as did his mother and father. and show to daylight an accursed breed Firstly, I will look at the role of the chorus objectively, examining the basic role of the chorus in the play, and looking at the role of the Chorus as Sophocles would have intended the role of the Chorus to be understood. The word “Chorus” derives from the Greek word “kôrəs” which means “a large organized group of singers”. In his youth, Laius was taken in as a guest by Pelops, king of Elis, where he would become tutor to the king's youngest son, Chrysippus, in chariot racing. When the shepherd arrives Oedipus questions him, but he begs to be allowed to leave without answering further. In 2012, the play was further adapted by Rasheed Otun and titled The Gods Are STILL Not to Blame. Oedipus' reaction to the Oracle is irrational: he states he did not get any answer and he flees in a direction away from Corinth, showing that he firmly believed at the time that Polybus and Merope are his real parents. While the old man moves to strike the insolent youth with his scepter, Oedipus throws the man down from his chariot, killing him. It is scored for orchestra, speaker, soloists, and male chorus. The Chorus is given the last word in each of the three Theban plays, and perhaps the best way of understanding the different ways in which the Chorus can work is to look at each of these three speeches briefly. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Sophocles. Part III. However, Oedipus presses him, finally threatening him with torture or execution. Oedipus Tex is a satirical Western-themed oratorio by P. D. Q. Bach that follows the adventures of Oedipus Tex ("you may have heard of my brother Rex") in Thebes Gulch. If the shepherd confirms that Laius was attacked by many men, then Oedipus is in the clear. The Role of Fate in Oedipus Rex Uploaded by tyson_626 on Mar 19, 2005. The two begin to quarrel over whose chariot has the right of way. 1348 Words 6 Pages. how miserable you are, or where you live, He can expand the past, comment on present and forbade the future. Sutherland's voice, however, was dubbed by another actor. He plays the role of mediator, peace maker critic, expositor and commentator . The Role Of Chorus In "Oedipus Rex" Q. & Kabir Chowdhury, Fahmida. 'Oedipus Rex' is a Greek tragedy by Sophocles about Oedipus, the king of Thebes, who kills his father and marries his mother. The Chorus played an integral role in conveying the plot and meaning of Ancient Greek Theatre to the audience by highlighting and portraying the social perception and consequences of the characters’ actions and fates. The shepherd brings the infant to Corinth, and presents him to the childless king Polybus, who raises Oedipus as his own son. The chorus, a group of people that would serve as a parallel between the actors and the audience, can be found in almost every Greek play. At the point when Oedipus envisions that he is the child of the decency of luckiness, the Chorus, promptly sing that their expert, Oedipus, may be the child of Apollo. Other television portrayals of Oedipus include that of Christopher Plummer (1957), Ian Holm (1972), and Patrick Stewart (1977). Clear vision serves as a metaphor for insight and knowledge, yet the clear-eyed Oedipus is blind to the truth about his origins and inadvertent crimes. As proof, she recounts an incident in which she and Laius received an oracle which never came true. He expresses the feelings of audience . Instead of answers he was given a prophecy that he would one day murder his father and sleep with his mother. In particular, it is necessary to show how different characters attempt to respond to the predictions, which they do not wish to come true, and explain the effects of their actions. None, at that point, realize that Jocasta is Oedipus' true mother. Kaggelaris, N. (2016), "Sophocles' Oedipus in Mentis Bostantzoglou's, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Stravinsky's opera-oratorio of the same name, Johnston, Ian. Giving a cry, Oedipus takes her down and removes the long gold pins that held her dress together, before plunging them into his own eyes in despair. The prophecy stated that Laius would be killed by his own son; however, Jocasta reassures Oedipus by her statement that Laius was killed by bandits at a crossroads on the way to Delphi. if I learn of it, and let him still remain, In the development of the action as a whole it is the Chorus that plays as important a part as that of Oedipus. It starred Michael Pennington as Oedipus, with Claire Bloom as Jocasta, Sir John Gielgud as Tiresias, and John Shrapnel as Creon. Without your knowledge you’ve become On the road to Thebes, Oedipus encounters an old man and his servants. It received widespread acclaim, and is seen in South Korea as the definitive adaptation. This chorus, which consists of a group of mature old Theban people, which is highly reliable, as commentators, serves to make significant dramatic commentary that guides the audience's response from the beginning to the end of the plot. Oedipus Rex By Sophocles - Role of Chorus Get link; Facebook; Twitter; Pinterest; Email; Other Apps; February 18, 2014 Greek tragedy is said to develop itself from the group of dancers and singers who used to partake in the worship of various gods. This chorus, which consists of a group of mature old Theban people, which is highly reliable, as commentators, serves to make significant dramatic commentary that guides the audience's response from the beginning to the end of the plot. He refers to Oedipus Rex as a “further modification of the legend,” one that originates in a “misconceived secondary revision of the material, which has sought to exploit it for theological purposes.”[32]:247[33][34]. Bested by the prince, the Sphinx throws herself from a cliff, thereby ending the curse. His search for a murderer is yet another instance of irony. The wording of the Oracle: "I was doomed to be murderer of the father that begot me" refers to Oedipus' real, biological father. ", Easterling, P. E. 1989. Oedipus vows to find the murderer and curses him for causing the plague. One of the most significant instances of irony in this tragedy is when Tiresias hints at Oedipus what he has done; that he has slain his own father and married his own mother (lines 457–60):[28]. Upon hearing this he resolved to leave Corinth and never return. This ode must be looked as the view of Chorus as Oedipus still retains his heroic figure, even after his downfall. Aeschylus's nephew Philocles took first prize at that competition. may I receive the curse I have laid on others. Oedipus asks the chorus if anyone knows who this man was, or where he might be now. He can expand the past, comment on present and forbade the future. The Role Of The Chorus In Oedipus Rex. On an empty stage the chorus repeats the common Greek maxim, that no man should be considered fortunate until he is dead.[11]. Conclusion. Unlike Guthrie's film, this version shows the actors' faces, as well as boasting an all-star cast, including Christopher Plummer as Oedipus; Lilli Palmer as Jocasta; Orson Welles as Tiresias; Richard Johnson as Creon; Roger Livesey as the Shepherd; and Donald Sutherland as the Leading Member of the Chorus. 3 pages, 1449 words. [10] Thus, unbeknownst to either character, the remaining prophecy has been fulfilled. The chorus continuosly Jocasta, confused, asks Oedipus what the matter is, and he tells her. Laius binds the infant's feet together with a pin and orders Jocasta to kill him. Two oracles in particular dominate the plot of Oedipus Rex. Thus the question of two set of parents, biological and foster, is raised. So, then! ", Freud goes on to indicate, however, that the “primordial urges and fears” that are his concern are not found primarily in the play by Sophocles, but exist in the myth the play is based on. The work was written towards the beginning of Stravinsky's neoclassical period and is considered one of the finest works from this phase of the composer's career. Nigerian writer Ola Rotimi adapted Oedipus Rex into a 1968 play and novel, titling it The Gods Are Not to Blame. Toshio Matsumoto's film, Funeral Parade of Roses (1969), is a loose adaptation of the play and an important work of the Japanese New Wave. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. He then rages through the house, until he comes upon Jocasta's body. (PU-1995) Ans. Filed Under: Essays. To his horror, the oracle reveals that Laius "is doomed to perish by the hand of his own son." In antiquity, the term "tyrant" referred to a ruler with no legitimate claim to rule, but it did not necessarily have a negative connotation.[2][3][4]. In his landmark essay "On Misunderstanding the Oedipus Rex",[24] E.R. Creon enters, saying that Oedipus shall be taken into the house until oracles can be consulted regarding what is best to be done. Unable to do so to her own son, Jocasta orders a servant to slay the infant instead. However, many scholars[who?] Oedipus, King of Thebes, sends his brother-in-law, Creon, to ask advice of the oracle at Delphi, concerning a plague ravaging Thebes. The chorus moves along the story by announcing the arrival of characters and answering questions that help the plot progress. The wording of the drunken guest on the other hand: "you are not your father's son" defines Polybus as only a foster father to Oedipus. [17] Edith Hall referred to Oedipus the King as "this definitive tragedy" and notes that "the magisterial subtlety of Sophocles' characterization thus lend credibility to the breathtaking coincidences," and notes the irony that "Oedipus can only fulfill his exceptional god-ordained destiny because Oedipus is a preeminently capable and intelligent human being. Oedipus chooses not to return to Corinth after hearing the oracle, just as he chooses to head toward Thebes, to kill Laius, and to take Jocasta specifically as his wife. At the end of Oedipus the King, the Chorus conflates the people of “Thebes” with the audience in the theater. Oedipus then sends for the one surviving witness of the attack to be brought to the palace from the fields where he now works as a shepherd. Œdipus rex ([edipus rɛks], Œdipe roi) est un opéra-oratorio d'Igor Stravinsky créé au théâtre Sarah-Bernhardt le 30 mai 1927 en version de concert puis le 23 février 1928 à l'Opéra d'État de Vienne en version scénique.. He does this by having the chorus reflect the viewpoints and interpretations of the play that Sophocles intended the audience to have. He plays the role of mediator, peace maker critic, expositor and commentator . At the end of the play, after the truth finally comes to light, Jocasta hangs herself while Oedipus, horrified at his patricide and incest, proceeds to gouge out his own eyes in despair. Amazingly, though, the Chorus in Oedipus the King manages to convince Oedipus not to banish or execute Creon. The mention of this crossroads causes Oedipus to pause and ask for more details. They point to Jocasta's initial disclosure of the oracle at lines 711–14. In response to the plague at Thebes, he chooses to send Creon to the Oracle for advice and then to follow that advice, initiating the investigation into Laius' murder. The two wordings support each other and point to the "two set of parents" alternative. There is so much that we cannot know and cannot control that we should not think and behave as if we do know and can control.[20]. The exploration of the theme of state control in Oedipus Rex is paralleled by the examination of the conflict between the individual and the state in Antigone. The Oedipus Rex quotes below are all either spoken by The Chorus or refer to The Chorus. The chorus moves along the story by announcing the arrival of characters and answering questions that help the plot progress. On closer analysis the oracle contains essential information which Oedipus seems to neglect. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The prophet Tiresias, on the other hand, although literally blind, "sees" the truth and relays what is revealed to him. [25] This, however, is not to say that Oedipus is a victim of fate and has no free will. However, in terms of the chronology of events that the plays describe, it comes first, followed by Oedipus at Colonus and then Antigone. In Sophocles’s Oedipus Rex, the chorus is composed of senators, while in Sophocles's Electra, the chorus is made up of the women of Argos. He asks Creon to watch over them and Creon agrees, before sending Oedipus back into the palace. Outraged, Tiresias tells the king that Oedipus himself is the murderer ("You yourself are the criminal you seek"). Chorus effectively plays its role as a strong voice of the Theban people. In 2017, BBC Radio 3 broadcast a production of Anthony Burgess' translation of the play with Christopher Eccleston as Oedipus and Fiona Shaw as Tiresias/Second Elder. Oedipus summons the blind prophet Tiresias for help. [9] Oedipus' reward for freeing Thebes from the Sphinx is kingship to the city and the hand of its dowager queen, Jocasta. To the woman who gave birth to him he is son and husband and to his father, both, a sharer of his bed and his murderer. "Divine and Human Action in the Oedipus Tyrannus." Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Oedipus, blessed with great intelligence, answers correctly: "man" (Greek: anthrôpos), who crawls on all fours as an infant; walks upright in maturity; and leans on a stick in old age.[8]:463. [38] Apart from being advertised as "fun for the whole family," the parody is also mentioned at other times during that same episode, such as in a satirical advertisement in which orphans are offered a free "Oedipus Rex ashes urn" as a promotional offer after losing a relative.[39]. He asks the Delphic Oracle who his parents really are. To his children he will discover that he is both brother and father. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one: ). This terrible act casts doom upon Laius and all those who descend from him. The Role Of The Chorus In Oedipus Rex. Arriving at Thebes, a city in turmoil, Oedipus encounters the Sphinx, a legendary beast with the head and breast of a woman, the body of a lioness, and the wings of an eagle. I hereby call down curses on this killer... In the fifth or last choric tribute in Oedipus Rex, the Chorus reflects the despondency of Oedipus and says that all the eras of moral man indicate nothing. The chorus's interest lies purely in protecting the city; and with this interest in mind, the chorus shows great respect and admiration for their king, Oedipus, and also great reverence for the gods. "The Ending of Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex. See Dodds 1966; Mastronarde 1994, 19; Gregory 2005, 323. This is ironic as Oedipus is, as he discovers, the slayer of Laius, and the curse he wishes upon the killer, he has actually wished upon himself. For each quote, you can also see the other characters and themes related to it (each theme is indicated by its own dot and icon, like this one: ). A common theme found in Greek plays is the use of a chorus. Oedipus is enraged by Tiresias' refusal, and verbally accuses him of complicity in Laius' murder. Dodds, E. R. “On Misunderstanding the Oedipus Rex”. He visits Delphi to find out who his real parents are and assumes that the Oracle refuses to answer that question, offering instead an unrelated prophecy which forecasts patricide and incest. The later part of this trilogy, especially the ending of Oedipus the King and Oedipus at Colonus, reveals a darker and deeper phenomenon of Thebes and projects it to Oedipus. 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