Fortress engineers and OT workers returned to France to work on. At Fort Saumarez L’Eree headland, a trench system with machine gun and a Tobruk pit has been opened up and is accessible to the public.[16]:179. Each of the Islands of Guernsey had a completely different occupation experience, from total evacuation to horrifying occupation. Whether the Islands were impregnable was never tested, except for Battery Blücher in Alderney. By Pierre Kosmidis Info and photos submitted by Emmanouil Tzilivakis, used by permission. A Stützpunktgruppe (Strongpoint group) was a cluster of SP's and WN's under command of a Battalion. With several concrete constructions, they were adapted to the circumstances, such as WN Grune Dune, which is at Rocquaine Bay, comprising two anti-tank gun casemates, a multi loophole steel turret bunker mounting several machine guns, a personnel bunker with a periscope, anti tank wall, observation position and small command bunker. They were supposed to be paid 55 Reichspfennig an hour. A special partnership between a tour business and Festung Guernsey will give people the chance to take an in-depth look at some of the island's more hidden-away German fortifications. Fittings such as air purification systems, showers, gas proof doors, telephones, periscopes, and wiring were standardised. Wire barrier around the dugout; 15). Gun is … Artillery Regiment 319 was strengthened. [16]:101 Naval Range-finding Tower MP 3 at Pleinmont, which has 5 observation levels and had a radar unit on the roof, has become a museum, open to the public. Most of L'Ancresse bay is protected by a wall. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The Regelbau (standard build) system used books of plans for each of over 600 approved types of bunker and casemate, each having a specific purpose. Netzknotenpunkt (Telephone network bunkers) were built to protect vulnerable exchanges. When it became clear that conquering Britain would be impossible, Hitler issued orders to convert the Channel Islands They worked 12-hour shifts, seven days a week, and were allowed one half-day a month off.[14]:168. Once the fumes and dust had dispersed, the loose rock could be cleared, loaded onto wagons run out on 60 cm tracks and removed. Renovated positions are open to the public and some have been refitted and opened as museums. Four are located in Guernsey. Oct 28, 2020 - Explore Marcel Edwards's board "world war 2 Guernsey German soldiers 1940-1945" on Pinterest. In Guernsey there were five batteries, each of four 10cm Czech artillery, which had a range of 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi). 8 half-tracks. Using four barrels taken from a 1917 Imperial Russian dreadnaught captured in Norway and resting on platforms manufactured by Friedrich Krupp A.G., these 30.5 cm guns had a potential range of 51 kilometres (32 mi) with lightweight high explosive shells, weighing 250 kg or 31 kilometres (19 mi) with the heavier 405 kg armour piercing shells. [15], Ten other coastal artillery batteries, which included 1 x 15 cm SK C/28 and 1 x French 22 cm K532(f) at Jerbourg Point, run by Marine units, 3 x 21 cm Mörser 18 and 3 x French 22 cm K532(f) army units, all designed primarily to fire out to sea, were placed in open concrete pits so that they could turn 360 degrees. After the Wehrmacht occupied the Channel Islands on 30 June 1940, they assessed the existing defences to determine if they would be of use. Panel, made from the wooden poles; 12). Film Synopsis: Lily James plays free-spirited journalist Juliet Ashton, who forms a life-changing bond with the delightful and eccentric Guernsey Literary and Potato Peel Pie Society, when she decides to write about the book club they formed during the occupation of Guernsey in WWII.In cinemas April 20th. Tunnelling also generated stone. Bruno spiral barbed wire; 7). Activity decreased following the conclusion of the Battle of Britain,[16]:51 with the airfield being used more for refuelling and inter-island communications rather than as a base for permanent aircraft. [1]:210–5 [10]:39, The manual labour would be provided using Gastarbeitnehmer (guest workers), Militärinternierte (military internees), Zivilarbeiter (civilian workers), Ostarbeiter (Eastern workers), and Hilfswillige ("volunteer") POW workers. Wood; 16). The Islands of Guernsey are what’s known as an ‘archipelago’ – a collection of islands located on the English Channel between England and France. In total there were around 175 dedicated anti-aircraft guns in the island, plus machine guns on anti-aircraft mountings. All of these were two stories, some were disguised as houses, with tiled roofs and painted windows. Barbed wire and minefields would have protected the nest.[4]:37. Near Guernsey Airport lies the German Occupation Museum, which provides great insight into everyday life during the occupation, complete with a recreation of an occupation-era street.It is also home to a number of Second World War vehicles and fortifications. It comprised three bunkers: types V142, M172 and V192. [7]:66 This compares to the £2-10-0 a week offered by the States of Guernsey. As a result of this, the island is flooded with German bunkers and fortifications which can now be explored by members of the public. Sourcing of materials and transport had to be organised. Mines; 4). [7]:115 Detailed death certificates were filled out and the deaths were reported to OT in St Malo. We have seen some come back for holiday/memorial days. The smaller Freya radar was less visible. From the beginning of 1943 further construction work became a lower priority as the by then existing defences were sufficiently strong. Each observation slit of a tower observed for one particular battery and was fitted with range finding equipment. Water had to be drained and the new floor levelled and the track extended. [4]:30, Dummy positions were set up, including using logs to simulate guns and dummy minefields. Roads going northwest to southeast were yellow; those going northeast to southwest were red. Fourteen were started, few were completely finished, some were half built, others abandoned early when poor rock quality was hit, or priorities changed. By 13 June Hitler had made a decision. Individual troops – field fortifications, slit trenches etc. [3]:37, The tunnelling system adopted comprised, drilling a series of holes, several metres deep, inserting charges and detonating them, this created a hole 2–3 metres high and the same width. Luftwaffe fighter groups JG27 and JG53, equipped with Me Bf 109s, had been based during Kanalkampf in Guernsey in 1940. [4]:9 A casemate with a 10.5 cm gun has been restored at Hommet headland, north of Vazon and is open to the public. To eliminate traffic accidents, everyone had to drive and cycle on the right. Being in the front line of many wars, invasion was almost always a threat and the best locations for defence were being constantly rebuilt with older constructions being re-used and improved. U-boat and S-Boat facilities amounted to fuel tanks installed in Ho. 4 tunnels at La Valette in St Peter Port, to hold 480 tons of fuel. [17]:21, Mainly manned by Luftwaffe men of Flak Regiment 292, the multi purpose 8.8 cm Flak 36 were the main defence with a 7,500m effective range, located in six Island batteries and controlled by radar direction finding equipment, backed up by 150 cm searchlights. In this section you will find: Guernsey Occupied - this is a past exhibition about the occupation in general. A 90 cm gauge railway was constructed, running from the harbour in St Peter Port north to St Sampson and on to L'Ancresse, before running down the whole of the west coast to L’Eree. Fortress Engineer specialist sub-units such as Compressor, Mining, Rock Drilling, etc., would move between the Islands as required. Local workers too were recruited. Fortifications were improved in the Channel Islands, manned by professional soldiers and the Guernsey militia who would help to defend the Island for the next 600 years. [8] A power station was built in the Bouet by OT. [17]:30, A small number of the obsolescent French Renault FT tanks were shipped in 1941 to the island. Memoirs of Captain Henry Beckingham in command of clearing minefields after the War. [8] The original defence order was reinforced with a second order, dated 20 October 1941, following a Fuhrer conference on 18 October to discuss the engineers' assessment of requirements. The chapters from the original book have been reproduced in a set of ten paperbacks. Alderney was considered too well-protected against aircraft attack so HMS Rodney had the mission of shelling it. [7]:59–60, It was not just men that became OT workers; a number of women also found themselves in work camps. Massive prop supports were needed for the 2–3.5 metre thick ceilings. Many Russians were liberated by the British in Guernsey and Alderney. Mines, controled from the machine-gun nest; 9). Guernsey had a major quarrying industry so had stone and crushing facilities available. Huge World War Two bunker that Hitler built on Guernsey goes on sale for £155,000 and could be turned into a holiday let. Ho. Metal strengthening bars were wired together and the wooden shuttering was installed. 40 was equipped and used for a short while in 1944 as a hospital, as the planned hospital tunnel had not been built, however patients underground did not recuperate very well.[11]:35. Of the 96 OT workers who died in Guernsey, the majority died as a result of tunnelling accidents, a British bombing raid on St Peter Port in January 1942, and typhus in February 1943. After the war, bomb-disposal engineers removed 69,301 mines between 18 May and 19 July 1945. Lastly, the Germans produced a map, suitably marked, for their soldiers.[26]:19. De bezetting van de Kanaaleilanden verwijst naar de militaire bezetting van de Kanaaleilanden door nazi-Duitsland die duurde van 30 juni 1940 tot de bevrijding op 9 mei 1945.De Kanaaleilanden omvatten de Kroonbezitten van de baljuwschappen Guernsey en Jersey, die geen deel zijn van het Verenigd Koninkrijk en ook de kleinere eilanden Alderney en Sark omvatten. Camouflage in the form of paint, sprayed concrete and straw on wire mesh, and timber constructions were common. 1). On the 30th June 1940 German forces invaded Guernsey. [24]:2, Some positions were buried under soil and landscaped with plants and trees. Anti landing craft objects of steel and wood, thousands of tetrahedra and Czech hedgehog, often with teller mines attached on the beaches.[19]. The German occupation of the Channel Islands lasted for most of the Second World War, from 30 June 1940 until their liberation on 9 May 1945.The Bailiwick of Jersey and Bailiwick of Guernsey are two British Crown dependencies in the English Channel, near the coast of Normandy.The Channel Islands were the only de jure part of the British Empire to be occupied by Nazi Germany during the war. At the end of the reign of Henry VIII, in 1546 work was begun on building a fortification on the site that would become known as Essex Castle, the only remains are the current North and West walls of the fortification. Guernsey and its neighbouring islands have a unique distinction which sets them apart from the rest of the British Isles. They therefore had a high level of skills and quickly worked out the details of what was needed.[3]:8. A few plans were modified to suit the local terrain. This resulted in damage to three guns in open pits and the deaths of two men from their crews. Whilst the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine had their roles in protecting the islands from the Allies, the occupying forces put their main effort into land defences aimed at repelling a seaborne or airborne assault. OT gave Guernsey the code name Gustav. Film Synopsis: Albert Speer replaced Todt. The Channel Islands were seen as a perfect stepping-stone to the invasion of the Great Britain. View the maps of Guernsey used by the Germans during World War II. Find out more about the history that inspired The Guernsey Literary & Potato Peel Pie Society. The island of Guernsey has been fortified for several thousand years, the number of defence locations and complexity of the defence increasing with time, manpower and the improvements in weapons and tactics.. The route from St Peter Port to St Saviour was modified to accommodate the towing of the Batterie Mirus gun pieces by four heavy Sd.Kfz. Seventeen additional 4.7 cm Pak 36(t) were emplaced in field positions. 4 is now an occupation museum. Dugout with camouflage wire net; 13). Only about 30% of the original 319 ID personnel were still with the unit in June 1944, the fitter men having been sent to the Eastern Front, to be replaced with less fit and non German troops. [16]:104 However, U-Boats in Guernsey were too vulnerable to air attack. Cranes and concrete mixers were sourced. Sixteen anti tank gun casemates holding the Czech 4.7cm Pak with co-axial machine gun in a casemate, such as a Type R631. Each location had defences and facilities to suit its specific needs, the thickness of walls, floor, and ceiling were standard. See more ideas about guernsey, world war, channel islands. Barges and small ships were brought to the Islands to transport materials to supplement the two ships run by OT. Using the Regelbau standardized plans, each site was excavated normally using manual labour, sometimes needing explosives, the materials excavated generally being kept close by. Twenty one of the casemates built into the coast were designed for 10.5 cm K 331(f) French guns that had been acquired in large quantities. Fortifications of Guernsey. Holes through walls for ventilation pipes and cables, doorways and escape routes being put in before the concrete was poured. The forced labour came from the millions of prisoners taken during Operation Barbarossa, and arrived in the Islands in late 1942. The designs had been updated as captured enemy fortifications were examined; some were even tested to destruction for effectiveness. A copy was destined for Hitler. Divisional engineers – mines and flamethrowers, Army Construction Battalions – reinforced constructions to provide protection of “Vf” Reinforced field-type constructions quality, Fortress Engineers and Fortress Construction Battalions – mounting heavy weapons, some tunnelling, reporting, maps, supervising. OT transport was brought to Guernsey, mainly French vehicles dating back to 1914, to supplement horse-drawn transport. Over 16,000 OT workers were brought to the Channel Islands, of whom 7,000 came to Guernsey. [21]:188 A type R633 bunker took 845m³ of concrete and 40 tons of steel to build. On 2 June 1941 Adolf Hitler asked for maps of the Channel Islands; these were provided the next day. [1]:200, Consumable materials were sourced: cement, steel, timber for shuttering, sand and aggregate. Guernsey and the other Channel Islands were occupied by German Forces during the Second World War. The Germans found the Islands' fortifications antiquated and woefully inadequate for modern warfare. [3]:14–26 Tunnelling could be continued 24 hours a day with two 12 hours shifts as lighting in the tunnel could not be seen outside at night. [14]:174 More exotic camouflage, including disguising positions as houses were used. [4]:67–8 Artillerie Abteilung 1265 HQ was at Quatre Vents Estate, St Martin. machine gun posts, observation posts, battery locations, etc.) Rodney fired seventy-two 16-inch shells. From April to September 1943 shipments by sea to the Channel Islands averaged 20,000 tons per month. 'Wish you were here!' Aerial photograph of Vazon Bay with Stützpunkt Rotenstein at the top, Resistance in the German-occupied Channel Islands, Civilian life under the German occupation of the Channel Islands, Fort Hommet 10.5 cm Coastal Defence Gun Casement Bunker, "World War II anti-landing devices found in Guernsey", Guernsey Grammar School and Sixth Form Centre, Policy and Resources Committee of Guernsey, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_fortification_of_Guernsey&oldid=993985887, Military history of the Channel Islands during World War II, Channel Islands articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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