Paivio and Desrochers’ (1980) DCT model constituted an expansion of Paivio’s (1971) dual coding theory, which attempted to represent how cognitive processes worked. According to dual coding theory, (Paivio & Lambert, 1981) bilinguals have separate memory systems for each of their languages and a non-verbal system corresponding to images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the memory processes involved in verbal learning for bilingual students. The use of L1 in L2 learning (and teaching) is a controversy of long history which typically appears as a debate between the audio-lingual and the cognitive-code approaches to L2/FL instruction. The theory leads to a strong emphasis on the role of situational contexts and imagery in second language learning. The bilingual dual-coding theory of Paivio-Desrochers (1980) represents a derivation of Paivio’s (1971) dual-coding theory expanded to bilingual learning (and, by extrapolation, to multilingualism). These conditions were either translating or copying a list of 16 words they had to subsequently and unknowingly recall after an irrelevant anagram task. It is, therefore, logical and useful to summarize the main tenets of the two models. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in differences in referential images for L1 and L2. The Paivio-Desrochers bilingual dual-coding model has spawned a number of empirical studies involving both European and Asian languages largely supporting the latter. Results support bilingual dual coding theory as proposed by Paivio and A. Desrochers (see record 1982-02758-001). The results favored a bilingual version of dual-coding theory over levels-of- processing and generation-effort interpretations. The Bilingual Dual-Coding Theory While Paivio’s [ 8 ] original theory refers to one language, Paivio—Desrochers’s [ 23 ] work extends the theory to two or more languages. This chapter presents a bilingual version of dual coding theory. This study examined the nature of bilinguals’ conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Its basis is the idea that mental imaging aids learning. It depicts the verbal representations for two different languages as two separate but connected logogen systems, characterizes the translation process as the activation along the connections between the logogen systems, and attributes the acquisition of This study tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit one to compare the effects of bilingual en- coding with verbal-nonverbal dual encod- … sustained on Paivio and Desrochers’ (1980) dual coding theory to describe L2 reading comprehension for the case of the bilingual learner. Results replicate and extend those of A. Paivio and W. E. Lambert (see record 1982-09020-001), demonstrating a 3.3:2.4:1 ratio of recall for images to translation equivalents to copying. Dual coding theory is a cognitive theory Allan Paivio proposed in 1971. In the bilingual DCT, there are now two independent verbal systems which are linked to a common imagery system. Later, Ss were unexpectedly tested for recall. This chapter discusses dual coding theory. This chapter updates the dual coding theory (DCT) of the memory systems of bilingual (and multilingual) individuals. The theory is presented as a set of assumptions and hypotheses concerning the origins and the structural and functional properties of representational systems, along with examples of the empirical implications of those hypotheses. 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